Generic Name and Formulations:
Morphine sulfate 10mg, 20mg, 30mg, 40mg, 50mg, 60mg, 80mg, 100mg, 200mg; ext-rel caps.
Management of pain severe enough to require daily, around-the-clock, long-term opioid treatment and for which alternative treatments are inadequate.
Not for use as an as-needed (prn) analgesic. Use only if alternative treatment options (eg, non-opioid analgesics, immediate-release opioids) are ineffective, not tolerated, or otherwise inadequate to provide sufficient management of pain.
Use lowest effective dose for shortest duration. Swallow whole or may sprinkle contents on applesauce. May be given through 16 French gastrostomy tube. Do not give via NG tube. Individualize. May be given on 24hr or 12hr schedule. Usually not for initial therapy; begin with an immediate-release product and convert to an ext-rel product. Opioid non-tolerant: initially 30mg every 24hrs. Adjust dose at 1–2 day intervals. Use 100mg or 200mg caps, a single dose >60mg, or a total daily dose >120mg in opioid-tolerant patients only. Renal failure, cirrhosis: initiate at lower dose; titrate slowly and monitor. Conversion from other morphine formulations or other opioids: see full labeling. Withdraw gradually by 25–50% every 2–4 days.
<18yrs: not established.
Significant respiratory depression. Acute or severe bronchial asthma in an unmonitored setting or in the absence of resuscitative equipment. During or within 14 days of MAOIs. Known or suspected GI obstruction, including paralytic ileus.
Life-threatening respiratory depression; monitor within first 24–72hrs of initiating therapy and following dose increases. Accidental exposure may cause fatal overdose (esp. in children). COPD, cor pulmonale, decreased respiratory reserve, hypoxia, hypercapnia, or pre-existing respiratory depression; monitor and consider non-opioid analgesics. Abuse potential (monitor). Adrenal insufficiency. Head injury. Increased intracranial pressure, brain tumors; monitor. Seizure disorders. CNS depression. Impaired consciousness, coma, shock; avoid. Biliary tract disease. Acute pancreatitis. Drug and alcohol abusers. Renal or hepatic impairment. Reevaluate periodically. Avoid abrupt cessation. Elderly. Cachectic. Debilitated. Pregnancy; potential neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome during prolonged use. Labor & delivery, nursing mothers: not recommended.
See Contraindications. Avoid alcohol or alcohol-containing products. Increased risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, sedation with benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants (eg, non-benzodiazepine sedatives/hypnotics, anxiolytics, general anesthetics, phenothiazines, tranquilizers, muscle relaxants, antipsychotics, alcohol, other opioids); reserve concomitant use in those for whom alternative options are inadequate; limit dosages/durations to minimum required; monitor. Risk of serotonin syndrome with serotonergic drugs (eg, SSRIs, SNRIs, TCAs, triptans, 5-HT3 antagonists, mirtazapine, trazodone, tramadol, MAOIs, linezolid, IV methylene blue); monitor and discontinue if suspected. Avoid concomitant mixed agonist/antagonist opioids (eg, butorphanol, nalbuphine, pentazocine) or partial agonist (eg, buprenorphine); may reduce effects and precipitate withdrawal symptoms. May antagonize diuretics; monitor. Paralytic ileus may occur with anticholinergics. May be potentiated by cimetidine, P-gp inhibitors; monitor. May increase serum amylase.
Drowsiness, constipation, nausea, dizziness, anxiety; respiratory depression, severe hypotension, syncope.
10mg, 20mg, 30mg, 40mg, 50mg, 60mg, 80mg, 100mg (YES); 200mg (NO)
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